In March 2018, I worked with two contractors and a group of volunteers to move the Synergia installation from the North Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana to the Indiana University Bloomington campus. The volunteers included my former students Tristin Moore and Siqiao Gao, and Bloomington High School South students Dexter Wu-corts and Levy Burdine. The site was the nice and quiet green space between the Simon Hall, Chemistry building, the Lindley Hall, and the Kirkwood Hall. It took us about four days to complete the job. While Synergia was originally designed for the site at the North Christian Church designed by Eero Saarinen, it also fitted well on IUB campus. The white pristine geometry worked in contrast with the Collegiate Gothic style structures in the background. The installation definitely had caught the eyes and curiosities of students and faculty who happened to walk by the area. For one instance, Molecular and Celluar Biochemistry professor Adam Zlotnick took his entire class to see the pavilion as Synergia’s cellular structure resembled the viruses they had been study. For anther instance, biology student Ari Williams, found peace and serenity in the pavilion while playing some guitar. He was amazed at how the cellular structure enhanced the acoustic experience in the outdoor on windy spring days (video above, shot with a iphone).
The doubly periodic Miura pattern was named after Japanese astrophysicist Koryo Miura, and is a well-known origami pattern for its rigid and flat foldabilities and its ability to deploy and retract in a restrictive way. Miura pattern is also known as rigid origami, which is concerned with folding structures using flat rigid sheet material with certain thicknesses, such as metal, wood, plastic, etc, that are joined by hinges. Rigid origami has also studied as Thick origami by Tomohiro Tachi. In this article, he proposed using a new method called Tapered Panels in addition to Hoberman’s symmetric Miura-ori vertex method and Trautz and Kunstler’s Slidable Hinges method. Recently, Tomohiro Tachi and Tom Hull presented Double-line rigid origami as an extension of the crease offset method of thick rigid origami.
Interestingly, Miura surface can also be understood as a generalized example of bi-foldable infinite polyhedral complexes, or zonohedra, that are bounded by parallelograms. Similar to the weaving of a cube or other zonohera that has been studied by artist Rinus Roelofs, a polyhedron weaving technique can be used to construct these polyhedral complexes. A Miura surface can therefore be woven by strips of paper (see a diagram below), or thick materials such as corrugated cardboard. More images below show the added thickness and the stylization to the woven Miura surface in 4 mm thick corrugated cardboard. It was interesting to learn that weaving Miura surface with thick and rigid panels is a lot easier than adding thickness to the Miura origami panels.
I have been collaborating with mathematician Matthias Weber on a new class of infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes. Currently, our initial result has been published at: https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.01698. I would like to showcase two examples of triply infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes: Butterfly and Dos Equis. I made Butterfly and Dos Equis using a polyhedral weaving technique. The material is Mi Teintes paper. I’m also including two nice rendered videos made by Weber.
To learn more about the mathematics (explained in layman’s terms by Weber) behind these fun infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes, or the process of how we found them, I encourage you to visit Weber’s blogs here:
Butterfly has three vertex types: valency 4, 6, and 8. Butterfly is named after the vertex of valency 8 as it resembles a symmetrically balanced butterfly. This vertex is translated to create the triply periodic construction. Butterfly is made using a polyhedral weaving technique that employs a four-color complementary scheme. Each color represents a distinctive zone using the concept of zonohedron proposed by H.S.M. Coxeter. Each face is alternated and interwoven by two zones of two colors. A few deviations from the regularity are inserted to create the rhythmic changes.
There are three vertex types in Dos Equis: two of valency 4 and one of valency 8. Dos Equis is named after the vertex of valency 8 as it resembles the image of an X. Using a four-color complementary scheme, each color represents a distinctive zone using the concept of zonohedron proposed by H.S.M. Coxeter. Each zone, using two unique unit patterns, is then folded and interwoven with other zones. Notice that the four colored zones, with its two unit patterns, and its under or over weaving alternations, create a total of sixteen design variations for the quadrilateral faces.
Citation: Wu, J., (2018). Folding Yoshimura Pattern into Large-scale Art Installations. Lang, R., Bolitho, M. & You, Z. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 7th International Meeting on Origami in Science, Mathematics and Education (7OSME), Volume One, pp. 1-14, St. Albans, United Kingdom: Tarquin Publications.
Abstract: recent years, origami art has developed from a traditional paper craft to a contemporary art practice that is capable of intricate and complex expressions. Focusing specifically on the Yoshimura pattern, this article explores its potential for being used at an architectural scale to create spatial expressions that blur the boundaries between a human body, where it dwells, and what it wears. Various form finding, material choices, fabrication tools, assembly details, and installation techniques are experimented upon in order to transform the Yoshimura pattern from scale paper origami to full-scale folded ‘skins’ that allow the human body to move within and through.
Citation: Wu, J., Ressl, S. & Overton, K (2018). Light Harvest: Interactive Sculptural Installation based on Folding and Mapping Proteins, Digital Creativity, doi: 10.1080/14626268.2018.1533871.
Download the free PDF here:
Light Harvest is an interactive sculptural installation that explores a protein called Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) in the realm of materials, digital fabrication, projection mapping and interaction design. This article gives an account of the making of Light Harvest, a collaboration between an artist/designer, a structural biologist, and an interaction design technologist. The artistic concepts in material construction and digital techniques are drawn from protein folding, sophisticated mapping processes in protein X-ray crystallography, and the remarkable abilities of LHCI proteins to convert full-spectrum visible sunlight to useful energy for life. Through its interactive installation, Light Harvest engages us in an appreciation and understanding of the biological processes studied and the scientific techniques used to study them.
Citation: Wu, J., Inchbald, G. (2018). Folding Space Filling Bisymmetric Hendecahedrons for Large Scale Art Installation. Torrence, E., Torrence, B., Séquin, C. & Fenyvesi, K. (Eds.), Proceedings of Bridges 2018: Mathematical Connections in Art, Music, and Science, pp. 483-486, Phoenix, Arizona: Tessellation Publishing.
This article discusses the bisymmetric hendecahedron, a space-filling polyhedron that was used to create a large-scale art installation at the site of the famous North Christian Church by Eero Saarinen in Columbus, Indiana. The article focuses on the geometric construction of the bisymmetric hendecahedron as well as its transformation into a large-scale art installation. The focus is on the artistic design, the material construction, and the assembly techniques.
Citation: Wu, J. (2018). Ruga Lumina: Folding Interior Skin with Dynamic Light, Journal of Interior Design, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp. TBD. doi: 10.1111/joid.12123
Ruga Lumina investigates body–space relationships by leveraging digital fabrication and interactive technologies. Ruga Lumina is a spatial construct in the form of a smart luminous “skin” made of thin sheets of folded material that respond to the movement of live bodies within and surrounding its interior space. Spatial occupancy is registered through the use of smart technology; sensor information activates illumination and lighting effects, which, in turn, prompts perceptual and expressive aesthetic qualities as affects. This visual essay gives an account of the construction of Ruga Lumina at two exhibition sites: Detroit Center for Design and Technology (DCDT) in Detroit, Michigan, and 3Labs in Culver City, California. This account describes how bodies can be read and registered upon a spatial surface that points to a potential to re‐envision fundamental notions of surface interiority.
Installed on the site of Eero Saarinen’s North Christian Church in Columbus, Synergia is a public pavilion by the students of the IU School of Art, Architectuare + Design in Bloomington, who were directed by me in my D475 design studio in Spring 2017 and in the summer of 2017 as volunteers. The graduate students of the IUPUI School of Engineer and Technology in Indianapolis, directed by Professor Andre Tovar and myself in our ME59700 course in Spring 2017 on designing complex origami-inspired structures, also participated at this project by conducting the structural analysis and optimization. Synergia is open to the public at Exhibit Columbus between August 26th and November 26th, 2017 in Columbus, Indiana.
Synergia embodies the reality of life, community, and harmony through its simple parts working together to create a complex and light-filled space. Sitting next to Eero Saarinen’s North Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana, the translucent quality of the light found in Synergia in the daylight alludes to the hushed secondary light radiating from the perimeter of Saarinen’s structure. Colored LEDs further illuminate Synergia at night, creating an ephemeral atmosphere as Saarinen’s concrete façade serves as a backdrop. The interplay of light and shadow, acting in conjunction with the movements of compression and expansion, creates a space that fosters peace and reflection.
The generative seed for Synergia is a bisymmetric space-filling polyhedron that tessellates the space when stacked in interlocking layers. Over five hundred of the polyhedrons, measuring about two to three feet each, work together to form elongated hexagonal units. This hexagon geometry echoes the overall geometry of Saarinen’s mid-century modernist architecture and at the same time serves as the building block of a complex and diverse structure in a way that is similar to the development of biological forms, soap bubbles, and crystal patterns.
Synergia is constructed of translucent corrugated plastic sheets that are made from recycled plastic and are one hundred percent recyclable. The plastic boards were laser cut at Noblitt Fabricating in Columbus Indiana and then hand folded like origami to form each of the structural units in the studio at IU. The origami folds add the structural strength to the otherwise light and flexible plastic sheet material without the need for additional framing and assemblage. These units were then bolted together to create the overall installation. The fold lines of each unit thus form an interconnected space lattice that is light and yet structurally sound.
The IU School of Art, Architectuare + Design is participating in Exhibit Columbus as a part of the University Installations together with five other schools including Ball State University, Ohio State University, the University of Cincinnati, the University of Kentucky, and the University of Michigan. For more information about university installations at Exhibit Columbus, visit https://exhibitcolumbus.org/exhibition/university-installations.
Faculty: Jiangmei Wu (with Andre Tovar)
IUB Students: Amy Cunningham, Marguerite Fisher-Heath, Siqiao Gao, Hannah Holloway, Kylie Knipscheer, Guanyao Li, Tristin Moore, Anna Mui, Ariana Nunes, Michelle Smith, Emma Walsh, Ye Wang, Zhanhua Yan, Simin Yu, Lu Zhang, Jin Zhu
IUPUI Students: Aaron Berndt, Ryan Comer, Shweta Daule, Shantanu Sabade, Ashutosh Salunke, Pratik Shelke
Special thanks: I would like to thank many individuals, including my colleagues at IU SoAAD (Kelly Wilson, Marleen Newman, Peg Faimon, Ryan Mandell, Tai Rogers), Exhibit Columbus members (Janice Shimizu, Josh Coggeshall, Anne Surak and Richard McCoy), community members of Columbus (Tricia Gilson, Jerry Karr, and “Bill” who lives near the North Christian Church and who is helping to ensure that the lights are on every night), and my most dedicated students Tristin Moore and Guanyao Li. Thank you all very much for helping with this project during its ideation, fabrication, construction, and installation process.
Japaneses artist Mikako Suzuki led a engaging hands-on workshop to 14 participants, including IUB art students and Bloomington community artists, at the Ivy Tech John Waldron Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana, on Friday September 1st from 1:00 pm to 4:00pm. The workshop was translanted by Rowland Ricketts, who is a professor in Textile at IU School of Art, Architecture + Design, and who has spent years studying Japnese indigo techniques in Japan.
Surihaku is a Japanese art of gold foil painting. Eacho of the participants learned to create stencil designs and transfer the design to three Washi paper postcards susing gold foils. The Washi paper postcards were made in Japan in Professor Shibazaki’s paper making lab at Aichi University of Arts. Professor Shibazaki alse gave a talk on Washi paper during the second part of the workshop. The participant learned about the difference in the fibers that are used to make different types of Washi, Gampi, Mitsumata and Kozo.
The video below shows Mikako demonstrating how to apply the Nori, a type of Japanese ahesive to the stencil.
The video below shows Mikako demonstrating how to apply the gold foil to the stencil.
Washi Art and Design, an international paper art exhibition, is the first group exhibition I curated and organized. The show runs from August 26th to September 21, 2017, at the Ivy Tech John Waldron Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana. The participating artists are Yuri Kawai (Japan), Sachiko Kinoshita (Japan), Amanda Ross (U.S.), Rowland Ricketts (U.S.), Koji Shibazaki (Japan), Jenny Stopher (U.S.), Mikao Suzuki (Japan), Ruigan Zhou (China), and myself.
The Exhibition is focused on the theme of Washi and other paper art. Washi paper is made from the long inner fibers of three plants: Kozo (mulberry tree), Mitsumata, and Gampi. Due to these raw materials and the traditional craft techniques, Washi papermaking has no adverse environmental impact. The paper is very durable and can last as long as a few hundred years. In Japan, Washi has played a significant role in the lifestyle and culture of the Japanese people. In addition to its more common uses in stationary and in the fine arts, Washi is used in many different cultural activities such as in religious and ceremonial events. Its fabric-like quality makes it suitable for applications in fashion, interior lighting, and interior furnishing. Though there is a long history of Washi papermaking in Japan, today only a few Washi papermakers are continuing their papermaking traditions, and Professor Koji Shibazaki’s Washi research lab at Aichi University of Arts is one of them.
The exhibition and workshop are supported in part by a workshop grant from Indiana University’s College Arts & Humanities Institute.