I have been collaborating with mathematician Matthias Weber on a new class of infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes. Currently, our initial result has been published at: https://arxiv.org/abs/1809.01698. I would like to showcase two examples of triply infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes: Butterfly and Dos Equis. I made Butterfly and Dos Equis using a polyhedral weaving technique. The material is Mi Teintes paper. I’m also including two nice rendered videos made by Weber.
To learn more about the mathematics (explained in layman’s terms by Weber) behind these fun infinite bi-foldable polyhedral complexes, or the process of how we found them, I encourage you to visit Weber’s blogs here:
Butterfly has three vertex types: valency 4, 6, and 8. Butterfly is named after the vertex of valency 8 as it resembles a symmetrically balanced butterfly. This vertex is translated to create the triply periodic construction. Butterfly is made using a polyhedral weaving technique that employs a four-color complementary scheme. Each color represents a distinctive zone using the concept of zonohedron proposed by H.S.M. Coxeter. Each face is alternated and interwoven by two zones of two colors. A few deviations from the regularity are inserted to create the rhythmic changes.
There are three vertex types in Dos Equis: two of valency 4 and one of valency 8. Dos Equis is named after the vertex of valency 8 as it resembles the image of an X. Using a four-color complementary scheme, each color represents a distinctive zone using the concept of zonohedron proposed by H.S.M. Coxeter. Each zone, using two unique unit patterns, is then folded and interwoven with other zones. Notice that the four colored zones, with its two unit patterns, and its under or over weaving alternations, create a total of sixteen design variations for the quadrilateral faces.
Light Harvest is an interactive sculptural installation that explores a protein called Light-Harvesting Complex II (LHCII) in the realm of materials, digital fabrication, projection mapping and interaction design. This article gives an account of the making of Light Harvest, a collaboration between an artist/designer, a structural biologist, and an interaction design technologist. The artistic concepts in material construction and digital techniques are drawn from protein folding, sophisticated mapping processes in protein X-ray crystallography, and the remarkable abilities of LHCI proteins to convert full-spectrum visible sunlight to useful energy for life. Through its interactive installation, Light Harvest engages us in an appreciation and understanding of the biological processes studied and the scientific techniques used to study them.
This summer I was invited to partcipate in an international paper art biennial at CODA museum in Apeldoorn, the Netherlands. I exhibited Light Harvest, a large interactive intallation art that is inspired by the intriguing protein structures of Light-havesting Complexes (LHC). LHC contains pigments that abort light and transfer the solar energy to chemical energy.
Installation of ceiling canopy for the protein structure at CODA, Apeldoorn, Netherlands
One of the large crates being made at the McCalla at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana
Projection mapping at CODA, Apeldoorn, Netherlands
Three large crates, about 37.5″ D x 22.5″ H x 73″ L, and one small crate, about 28.5″ D x 19″ L x 33.5″ H, were shipped from Bloomington, Indiana, to Apeldoorn, Netherlands, in early May before my team and I arrived in Apeldoorn in late May. We rented a small airbnb house near the museum for 4 days and were able to walk to the museum to work everyday. It was a really fun experience. On the first day the museum staff helped us set up the ceiling canopy in the exhibiton space. On the second and the third day, we worked on the paper structure installation and the technology set up. On the fourth day, we worked on the projection mapping.
After we arrived in Apeldoorn, Kyle Overton and I decided that we would try a new way of coding in Processing to produce a different interactive experience than the previous installation at the Grunwald Gallery. As the result, Kyle spent most of the four days writing 1500 lines of the codes! The Processing outputs a smooth gradation of cool blue and green hues, to be projection-mapped onto the folded Light Harvest protein structure. The green and blue gradation of light, projected from three projectors, mimics the deep water in which certain photosynthetic algae with certain class of phycobilin pigments live. Each pigment, contained within LHC, has an unique absorption specturm, allowing it to absorb cetain wavelengths of light. This particular algae, appearing to be red, is able to carry out photosyntheiss in deep water where the wavelenghts of blue-green lights are most abundant by aborbing blue-green and reflecting red! When viewers enter the exhibition floor and interact with each chain of Light Harvest, the chain will turn into red-orange color. The interaction means to let the viewers know that photosyntheiss is in action!
Installed on the site of Eero Saarinen’s North Christian Church in Columbus, Synergia is a public pavilion by the students of the IU School of Art, Architectuare + Design in Bloomington, who were directed by me in my D475 design studio in Spring 2017 and in the summer of 2017 as volunteers. The graduate students of the IUPUI School of Engineer and Technology in Indianapolis, directed by Professor Andre Tovar and myself in our ME59700 course in Spring 2017 on designing complex origami-inspired structures, also participated at this project by conducting the structural analysis and optimization. Synergia is open to the public at Exhibit Columbus between August 26th and November 26th, 2017 in Columbus, Indiana.
Synergia embodies the reality of life, community, and harmony through its simple parts working together to create a complex and light-filled space. Sitting next to Eero Saarinen’s North Christian Church in Columbus, Indiana, the translucent quality of the light found in Synergia in the daylight alludes to the hushed secondary light radiating from the perimeter of Saarinen’s structure. Colored LEDs further illuminate Synergia at night, creating an ephemeral atmosphere as Saarinen’s concrete façade serves as a backdrop. The interplay of light and shadow, acting in conjunction with the movements of compression and expansion, creates a space that fosters peace and reflection.
The generative seed for Synergia is a bisymmetric space-filling polyhedron that tessellates the space when stacked in interlocking layers. Over five hundred of the polyhedrons, measuring about two to three feet each, work together to form elongated hexagonal units. This hexagon geometry echoes the overall geometry of Saarinen’s mid-century modernist architecture and at the same time serves as the building block of a complex and diverse structure in a way that is similar to the development of biological forms, soap bubbles, and crystal patterns.
Synergia is constructed of translucent corrugated plastic sheets that are made from recycled plastic and are one hundred percent recyclable. The plastic boards were laser cut at Noblitt Fabricating in Columbus Indiana and then hand folded like origami to form each of the structural units in the studio at IU. The origami folds add the structural strength to the otherwise light and flexible plastic sheet material without the need for additional framing and assemblage. These units were then bolted together to create the overall installation. The fold lines of each unit thus form an interconnected space lattice that is light and yet structurally sound.
Students scoring the plastic board using a template by hand..
Special thanks: I would like to thank many individuals, including my colleagues at IU SoAAD (Kelly Wilson, Marleen Newman, Peg Faimon, Ryan Mandell, Tai Rogers), Exhibit Columbus members (Janice Shimizu, Josh Coggeshall, Anne Surak and Richard McCoy), community members of Columbus (Tricia Gilson, Jerry Karr, and “Bill” who lives near the North Christian Church and who is helping to ensure that the lights are on every night), and my most dedicated students Tristin Moore and Guanyao Li. Thank you all very much for helping with this project during its ideation, fabrication, construction, and installation process.
Japaneses artist Mikako Suzuki led a engaging hands-on workshop to 14 participants, including IUB art students and Bloomington community artists, at the Ivy Tech John Waldron Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana, on Friday September 1st from 1:00 pm to 4:00pm. The workshop was translanted by Rowland Ricketts, who is a professor in Textile at IU School of Art, Architecture + Design, and who has spent years studying Japnese indigo techniques in Japan.
Surihaku is a Japanese art of gold foil painting. Eacho of the participants learned to create stencil designs and transfer the design to three Washi paper postcards susing gold foils. The Washi paper postcards were made in Japan in Professor Shibazaki’s paper making lab at Aichi University of Arts. Professor Shibazaki alse gave a talk on Washi paper during the second part of the workshop. The participant learned about the difference in the fibers that are used to make different types of Washi, Gampi, Mitsumata and Kozo.
The video below shows Mikako demonstrating how to apply the Nori, a type of Japanese ahesive to the stencil.
The video below shows Mikako demonstrating how to apply the gold foil to the stencil.
Participants feeling the paper texture.
Professor Ricketts translatting for Professor Shibazaki.
A participant using the brush to get rid of extra foil.
Washi Art and Design, an international paper art exhibition, is the first group exhibition I curated and organized. The show runs from August 26th to September 21, 2017, at the Ivy Tech John Waldron Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana. The participating artists are Yuri Kawai (Japan), Sachiko Kinoshita (Japan), Amanda Ross (U.S.), Rowland Ricketts (U.S.), Koji Shibazaki (Japan), Jenny Stopher (U.S.), Mikao Suzuki (Japan), Ruigan Zhou (China), and myself.
The Exhibition is focused on the theme of Washi and other paper art. Washi paper is made from the long inner fibers of three plants: Kozo (mulberry tree), Mitsumata, and Gampi. Due to these raw materials and the traditional craft techniques, Washi papermaking has no adverse environmental impact. The paper is very durable and can last as long as a few hundred years. In Japan, Washi has played a significant role in the lifestyle and culture of the Japanese people. In addition to its more common uses in stationary and in the fine arts, Washi is used in many different cultural activities such as in religious and ceremonial events. Its fabric-like quality makes it suitable for applications in fashion, interior lighting, and interior furnishing. Though there is a long history of Washi papermaking in Japan, today only a few Washi papermakers are continuing their papermaking traditions, and Professor Koji Shibazaki’s Washi research lab at Aichi University of Arts is one of them.
Washi Art and Design, an international paper art exhibition, is the first group exhibition I curated and organized. The exhibition runs from August 26th to September 21, 2017 in the Ivy Tech John Waldron Arts Center in Bloomington, Indiana. The participating artists are Yuri Kawai (Japan), Sachiko Kinoshita (Japan), Amanda Ross (U.S.), Rowland Ricketts (U.S.), Koji Shibazaki (Japan), Jenny Stopher (U.S.), Mikao Suzuki (Japan), Ruigan Zhou (China), and myself.
The Exhibition is focused on the theme of Washi and other paper art. Washi paper is made from the long inner fibers of three plants: kozo (mulberry tree), mitsumata and gampi. Due to these raw materials and the traditional craft techniques, Washi papermaking has no negative environmental impact. The paper is very strong and can last as long as a few hundred years. In Japan, Washi has played a major role in the life style and culture of the Japanese people. In addition to its more common uses in stationary and in the fine arts, Washi is used in many different cultural activities such as in religious and ceremonial events. Its fabric like quality makes it suitable for applications in fashion, interior lighting and interior furnishing. Though there is long history of Washi papermaking in Japan, today only a few Washi papermakers are continuing their papermaking traditions and Professor Koji Shibazaki’s Washi research lab at Aichi University of Arts is one of them.
This article concerns the artistic and perceptual quality of translucent light transmitted by an origami-inspired paper surface when a light source is placed behind it. It describes my geometric strategies in origami design to create light art through the luminous effect of gradations of light. I first present historical background and related work on origami-inspired paper light art and origami tessellation designs. Case studies follow, focusing on geometric strategies for helical triangle tessellations, considering specific design requirements for creating functional folded light art.
Wu. J. (October 31, 2017). Method for Folding Flat, Non-rigid Materials to Create Rigid, Three-dimensional Structures. Patent No: US 9,803,826 B2. Washington DC: The United States Patent and Trademark Office
Priority Claim: The present application claims priority to U.S. Provisional Patent App. No. 61/893,519, filed Oct. 21, 2013, the entire disclosure of which is hereby expressly incorporated herein by reference.
Field: The present disclosure relates generally to creating rigid three-dimensional structures by folding flat, non-rigid materials. More particularly, the present disclosure relates to a method of folding a non-rigid material with a score or crease pattern into a three-dimensional structure for covering a light source.